5G has not yet been fully deployed globally, but many people have predicted what 6G will mean to technology and to the world. Although 5G has not yet become a popular trend, many countries are already considering the development of 6G. This is not surprising because in the technology industry , development for the future is always aimed at companies. Everything we know about 6G so far is still theoretical, it will certainly be an extension of the current 5G network. 6G can extend advanced technologies such as AI, robotics, automation… The evolution of mobile networks (from 0G to 6G) What challenges does 6G have to overcome? The biggest challenge with 6G is resisting atmospheric absorption and severe terahertz wave breaking. Existing 5G networks also suffer from this problem as users report signal loss when obstructed by trees or buildings.
The first wireless transmissions in history were officially confirmed in 1985. An Italian inventor, Guglielmo Marconi used radio waves to transmit morse codes over a distance of 3.4km. However, it was not until almost a century later, in 1973, that the first wireless cell phone was tested, called a 0G mobile phone. This is a very important moment for wireless transmission. Immediately after the above invention, telecom companies started to develop the first generation ‘1G’ mobile network. It has a bandwidth of 30kHz and a speed of 2.4Kbps , allowing only voice calls. Although 1G had poor voice transmission quality and limited capacity, it was still in use until 1991. Leaving behind 1G, 2G mobile phones hit the market in the 1990s, allowing users to send SMS, email, and even access the internet at low speeds. It runs on a bandwidth of 30kHz to 200kHz and keeps ramping up to 384Kbps. Since then, advances in wireless technology have succeeded and we see a new generation of telecommunications networks every decade. 3G is expanded upon 2G, which is 40 times faster, enabling video calls and internet-based applications. Then 4G came in at 50 to 500 times faster than 3G with lower latency. Now, humans are deploying 5G with a maximum speed of 20Gbps. Qualcomm claims 5G will benefit IoT integration, automation… Ultimately, 6G will outperform 5G and can even create unimaginable technological feats.
What is 6G?
6G will emerge as the 6th generation of wireless transmission, succeeding 5G technology – which has not yet been deployed in many countries. 6G uses ultra-high frequency (THF) waves, also known as sub-millimeter waves, to achieve speeds 100 times faster than 5G (which uses millimeter waves (mmWave)). When the device uses 6G, the latency is expected to be less than 1 microsecond. In other words, 6th generation transmission technology will be born to bridge the gap between the digital world and the real world. During the ‘Samsung Networks: Redefined’ event, a Samsung representative mentioned that they have made significant progress on the road to super-connected experiences through 6G, by achieving 50x the speed and equal to the same latency. 1/10 of 5G. Along with the incredible increase in network access speed, 6G is expected to have high reliability and support real-time data processing in the most efficient way. It will be the product of integrated advances in wireless communications and other technologies such as sensing, imaging, display, and AI. Augmented reality (XR) is a term that encompasses virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR) and mixed reality (MR). The concept gained popularity when 5G arrived, but due to hardware limitations, 5G could not support the XR. 6G can fill these gaps, and many experts think the XR could become a reality in the future.
What challenges does 6G have to overcome?
The biggest challenge with 6G is resisting atmospheric absorption and severe terahertz wave breaking. Existing 5G networks also suffer from this problem as users report signal loss when obstructed by trees or buildings. Samsung’s 6G white paper also mentioned some ‘candidate’ technologies to solve this problem. Some technologies can be mentioned such as mesh topology, spectrum sharing, comprehensive AI… According to the World Economic Forum, digital technologies, including 5G, could reduce emissions by 15% worldwide. With increased efficiency and sustainability standards, 6G aims higher. 6G is expected to play an important role in achieving the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals.